Life insurance has come a long way since the days when it was known as burial insurance and used mainly to pay for funeral expenses. Today, life insurance is a crucial part of many estate plans. You can use it to leave much-needed income to your survivors. Or, provide for your children’s education, or pay off your mortgage. It can simplify the transfer of assets. Life insurance can also be used to replace wealth lost due to the expenses and taxes that may follow your death. Or, it can be used to make gifts to charity at relatively little cost to you.
We will illustrate how life insurance can help you plan your estate wisely. Let’s compare what happened upon the death of two friends. Frank, who bought life insurance, and Dave, who did not.
(Please note: that these illustrations are hypothetical)
Life insurance can protect your survivors financially by replacing your lost income
Frank bought life insurance to help ensure that his survivors wouldn’t suffer financially when he died. When Frank died and his paycheck stopped coming in, his family had enough money to maintain their lifestyle and live comfortably for years to come.
And since Frank’s life insurance proceeds were available very quickly, his family had cash to meet their short-term financial needs. Life insurance proceeds left to a named beneficiary don’t pass through the process of probate. Thus, Frank’s family didn’t have to wait until his estate was settled to get the money they needed to pay bills.
But Dave didn’t buy life insurance, so his family wasn’t so lucky. Even though Dave left his assets to his family in his will, those assets couldn’t be distributed until after the probate of his estate was complete. Probate typically takes six months or longer. Dave’s survivors had none of the financial flexibility that a life insurance policy would have provided in the difficult time following his death.
Life insurance can replace wealth that is lost due to expenses and taxes
Frank planned ahead and bought enough life insurance to cover the potential costs of settling his estate. Including taxes, fees, and other debts that his estate would have to pay. By comparison, these expenses took a big bite out of Dave’s estate. His estate had to sell valuable assets to pay the taxes and expenses that arose as a result of his death.
Life insurance lets you give to charity, while your estate enjoys an estate tax deduction
Using life insurance, Frank was able to leave a substantial gift to his favorite charity. Since gifts to charity are estate tax deductible, this gift was not subject to estate taxes when he died. Dave always dreamed of leaving money to his alma mater. However, his family couldn’t afford to give any money away when he died.
Life insurance won’t increase estate taxes–if you plan ahead
Before buying life insurance, Frank talked to his attorney about the potential tax consequences. Frank’s attorney told him that if he was leaving behind a taxable estate worth less than a certain amount, his survivors generally wouldn’t owe estate taxes on a life insurance policy left to them. Frank’s estate was larger than that. Frank and his attorney put a plan in place that helped minimize the estate tax burden on his family.
Be like Frank, not like Dave
Throughout his life, Dave worked hard to support his family. Frank did, too, but went one step further–he bought life insurance to protect his family after his death. Here’s how you can be like Frank:
- Use life insurance to ensure that your family has access to cash to help them meet both their short-term and long-term financial needs
- Plan ahead–buy enough life insurance to cover the potential costs of settling your estate and to ensure that the assets you leave to your survivors aren’t less than you intended
- Consider using life insurance to give to charity
- Consult an experienced attorney about income and estate tax consequences before purchasing life insurance
Disclosure:The content provided in this publication is for informational purposes only. Nothing stated is to be construed as financial or legal advice. Sterling Group United recommends that you seek the advice of a qualified financial, tax, legal, or other professional if you have questions.
A beneficiary is the person or entity you name (i.e., designate) to receive the death benefits of a life insurance policy. Some states require that your beneficiary have an insurable interest in your life or be related to you, while others have no such restriction.
If you do not want to name an individual or entity as your beneficiary, you can name your own estate. Any proceeds are distributed with your other assets according to your will. Please note, naming your estate as beneficiary may have disadvantages. For example, in many states, life insurance proceeds are exempt from the claims of your creditors when there is a named beneficiary, but not when your estate is your named beneficiary.
Revocable and irrevocable beneficiaries
The beneficiary can be either revocable or irrevocable. A revocable beneficiary can be changed at any time. Once named, an irrevocable beneficiary cannot be changed without his or her consent.
Primary and contingent beneficiaries
You may name multiple beneficiaries if you choose. There are no legal restrictions (and few company restrictions) on the number of beneficiaries you can designate.
You can name as many beneficiaries as you want, subject to procedures set in the policy. The beneficiary to whom the proceeds go first is called the primary beneficiary. Secondary or contingent beneficiaries are entitled to the proceeds only if they survive both you and the primary beneficiary. It’s important to name a contingent beneficiary. If you and your primary beneficiary die simultaneously, the Uniform Simultaneous Death Act provides that the beneficiary will be presumed to have died first. Naming a contingent beneficiary avoids having the proceeds flow to your estate.
If you name multiple beneficiaries, you must also specify how much each beneficiary will receive. You may not want to give each beneficiary an equal share, so you must state how the proceeds should be divided. Because of the numerous interest and dividend adjustments that the insurance company must make, the death benefit check often does not equal the policy’s face value. It’s wise to distribute percentage shares to your beneficiaries, or to designate one beneficiary to receive any leftover balance.
How do you name or change a beneficiary?
When you buy life insurance, you will indicate your beneficiaries on the application. When changing a beneficiary, the insurer will provide you with a beneficiary designation form. Unless one or more of the beneficiaries is irrevocable, you only need to list the names of the beneficiaries, sign the form, and date it. This will automatically revoke any previous designations by writing this in on the change-of-beneficiary form. Be sure to check and update your beneficiary designations upon certain life events.
Don’t make the mistake of thinking that you can change your beneficiary in your will. A change of beneficiary made in your will does not override the beneficiary designation of your life insurance policy. If you want to change the beneficiary of your life insurance, execute a change-of-beneficiary form. Do not rely on your will to do so.
Why designating the proper beneficiary is important
You should name both primary and contingent beneficiaries. If you have not named one or more beneficiaries, the proceeds pass to your estate at your death. Proceeds paid to your estate are subject to probate and will incur all of the expenses and delays associated with settling an estate. Named beneficiaries receive proceeds almost immediately after your death, and probate is bypassed. In addition, proceeds passing to your estate are subject to the claims of creditors. Most states exempt life insurance proceeds from creditors when there’s a named beneficiary.
Other considerations when designating beneficiaries
If you become incompetent, you cannot name or change a beneficiary. You’re incompetent only if you are legally declared to be so. The test is similar to the test regarding the making of wills or any other legal contract.
Do not name a minor as a beneficiary unless you also appoint a guardian in your will or use a trust. If you do name a minor as a beneficiary, and you do not appoint a guardian or use a trust, the probate court will appoint a guardian for you. In states that have adopted the Uniform Transfers to Minors Act, it’s possible to create a custodial account of the minor after the death of the insured to receive the child’s share of the death proceeds.
Your right to change a beneficiary may be limited by a divorce decree or settlement agreement. In some cases, divorce allows a policyowner to change the beneficiary, even if the beneficiary is irrevocable. In other cases, the policyowner may be prohibited from changing the beneficiary. Or, may be required to name a divorced spouse or children as irrevocable beneficiaries.
If you’re a minor
In some states, if you (the insured) are a minor, you can name only a certain class of persons as beneficiaries. That class generally includes your spouse, parents, grandparents, and brothers or sisters. Your parents or legal guardians will also have to sign the application for life insurance.
At Sterling Group, We Empower You to Protect Yourself
We offer a a diverse suite of life insurance carriers that fit you and your specific needs. We can also help you select the best choice as to who will be designated as your beneficiary to your life insurance policy. Contact us today for your complimentary consultation!
Whether you’re seeking to manage your own assets, control how your assets are distributed after your death, or plan for incapacity, trusts can help you accomplish your estate planning goals. Their power is in their versatility. Many types of trusts exist, each designed for a specific purpose.
What is a trust?
A trust is a legal entity that holds assets for the benefit of another. Basically, it’s like a container that holds money or property for somebody else. You can put practically any kind of asset into a trust. This includes cash, stocks, bonds, insurance policies, real estate, and artwork. The assets you choose to put in a trust depend largely on your goals.
For example, if you want the trust to generate income, you may want to put income-producing securities, such as bonds, in your trust. Or, if you want your trust to create a pool of cash that may be accessible to pay any estate taxes due at your death or to provide for your family, you might want to fund your trust with a life insurance policy.
When you create and fund a trust, you are known as the grantor. Or, sometimes known as the settlor or trustor. The grantor names people, known as beneficiaries, who will benefit from the trust. Beneficiaries are usually your family and loved ones but can be anyone, even a charity.
Beneficiaries may receive income from the trust or may have access to the principal of the trust either during your lifetime or after you die. The trustee is responsible for administering the trust, managing the assets, and distributing income and/or principal according to the terms of the trust. Depending on the purpose of the trust, you can name yourself, another person, or an institution, such as a bank, to be the trustee. You can even name more than one trustee if you like.
Why create a trust?
Trusts can be used for many purposes, they are popular estate planning tools. A trust can:
- Minimize estate taxes
- Shield assets from potential creditors
- Avoid the expense and delay of probating your will
- Preserve assets for your children until they are grown (in case you should die while they are still minors)
- Create a pool of investments that can be managed by professional money managers
- Set up a fund for your own support in the event of incapacity
- Shift part of your income tax burden to beneficiaries in lower tax brackets
- Provide benefits for charity
The type of trust used, and the mechanics of its creation, will differ depending on what you are trying to accomplish. You may need more than one type of trust to accomplish all of your goals. And since some of the following disadvantages may affect you, discuss the pros and cons of setting up any trust with your attorney and financial professional before you proceed:
- A trust can be expensive to set up and maintain. trustee fees, professional fees, and filing fees must be paid
- Depending on the type of trust you choose, you may give up some control over the assets in the trust
- Maintaining the trust and complying with recording and notice requirements can take up considerable time
- Income generated by trust assets and not distributed to trust beneficiaries may be taxed at a higher income tax rate than your individual rate
The duties of the trustee
The trustee of the trust is a fiduciary, someone who owes a special duty of loyalty to the beneficiaries. The trustee must act in the best interests of the beneficiaries at all times. They must preserve, protect, and invest the trust assets for the benefit of the beneficiaries. The trustee must also keep complete and accurate records, exercise reasonable care and skill when managing the trust, prudently invest the trust assets, and avoid mixing trust assets with any other assets, especially his or her own. A trustee lacking specialized knowledge can hire professionals such as attorneys, accountants, brokers, and bankers if it is wise to do so. However, the trustee can’t merely delegate responsibilities to someone else.
Although many of the trustee’s duties are established by state law. Others, are defined by the trust document. If you are the trust grantor, you can help determine some of these duties when you set up the trust.
Living (revocable) trust
A living trust is a special type of trust. It’s a legal entity that you create while you’re alive to own property such as your house, a boat, or mutual funds. Property that passes through a living trust is not subject to probate. It doesn’t get treated like the property in your will. Instead, the trustee will transfer the assets to the beneficiaries according to your instructions. The transfer can be immediate. Or if you want to delay the transfer, you can direct that the trustee hold the assets until some specific time.
Living trusts are attractive because they are revocable. You maintain control. You can change the trust or even dissolve it for as long as you live. Living trusts are also private. Unlike a will, a living trust is not part of the public record. No one can review details of the trust documents unless you allow it.
Living trusts can also be used to help you protect and manage your assets if you become incapacitated. If you can no longer handle your own affairs, your trustee (or a successor trustee) steps in and manages your property. Your trustee has a duty to administer the trust according to its terms, and must always act with your best interests in mind. In the absence of a trust, a court could appoint a guardian to manage your property.
Despite these benefits, living trusts have some drawbacks. Assets in a living trust are not protected from creditors, and you are subject to income taxes on income earned by the trust. In addition, you cannot avoid estate taxes using a living trust.
Unlike a living trust, an irrevocable trust can’t be changed or dissolved once it has been created. You generally can’t remove assets, change beneficiaries, or rewrite any of the terms of the trust. Still, an irrevocable trust is a valuable estate planning tool. First, you transfer assets into the trust–assets you don’t mind losing control over. You may have to pay gift taxes on the value of the property transferred at the time of transfer.
Provided that you have given up control of the property, all of the property in the trust, plus all future appreciation on the property, is out of your taxable estate. That means your ultimate estate tax liability may be less, resulting in more passing to your beneficiaries. Property transferred to your beneficiaries through an irrevocable trust will also avoid probate. As well,, property in an irrevocable trust may be protected from your creditors.
There are many different kinds of irrevocable trusts. There are some trusts have special provisions and are used for special purposes. Some irrevocable trusts hold life insurance policies or personal residences. You can even set up an irrevocable trust to generate income for you.
Trusts can also be established by your will and do not come into existence until your will is probated. At that point, selected assets passing through your will can “pour over” into the trust. From that point on, these trusts work very much like other trusts. The terms of the trust document control how the assets within the trust are managed and distributed to your heirs. You have a say in how the trust terms are written. These types of trusts give you a certain amount of control over how the assets are used, even after your death.
Finding a professional you trust starts here
A trust is a great estate planning tool to manage your assets. If you’re considering adding a trust to your estate planning, Sterling Group can help. We can provide you with the expert financial knowledge to help you make the best decisions for your financial goals. Connect with one of our advisors today for your complimentary consultation.
Disclosure:The content provided in this publication is for informational purposes only. Nothing stated is to be construed as financial or legal advice. Sterling Group United recommends that you seek the advice of a qualified financial, tax, legal, or other professional if you have questions.
If you give away money or property during your life, those transfers may be subject to federal gift and estate tax and perhaps state gift tax. The money and property you own when you die (i.e., your estate) may also be subject to federal gift and estate tax and some form of state death tax. These property transfers may also be subject to generation-skipping transfer taxes. You should understand all of these taxes, especially since the passage of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (the 2001 Tax Act), the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 (the 2010 Tax Act), and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (the 2012 Tax Act). The 2001, 2010, and 2012 Tax Acts contain several changes that make estate planning much easier.
Federal gift and estate tax–background
Under pre-2001 Tax Act law, no federal gift and estate tax was imposed on the first $675,000 of combined transfers (those made during life and those made at death). The tax rate tables were unified into one–that is, the same rates applied to gifts made and property owned by persons who died in 2001. Like income tax rates, gift and estate tax rates were graduated. Under this unified system, the recipient of a lifetime gift received a carryover basis in the property received, while the recipient of a bequest, or gift made at death, got a step-up in basis (usually fair market value on the date of death of the person who made the bequest or gift).
The 2001 Tax Act, the 2010 Tax Act, and the 2012 tax Act substantially changed this tax regime.
Federal gift and estate tax–current
The 2001 Tax Act increased the applicable exclusion amount for gift tax purposes to $1 million through 2010. The applicable exclusion amount for estate tax purposes gradually increased over the years until it reached $3.5 million in 2009. The 2010 Tax Act repealed the estate tax for 2010 (and taxpayers received a carryover income tax basis in the property transferred at death), or taxpayers could elect to pay the estate tax (and get the step-up in basis). The 2010 Tax Act also re-unified the gift and estate tax and increased the applicable exclusion amount to $5,120,000 in 2012. The top gift and estate tax rate is 35 percent in 2012. The 2012 Tax Act increased the applicable exclusion amount to $5,250,000 and the top gift and estate tax rate to 40 percent in 2013.
However, many transfers can still be made tax free, including:
- Gifts to your U.S. citizen spouse; you may give up to $143,000 in 2013 ($139,000 in 2012) tax free to your noncitizen spouse
- Gifts to qualified charities
- Gifts totaling up to $14,000 (in 2013, $13,000 in 2012) to any one person or entity during the tax year, or $28,000 (in 2013, $26,000 in 2012) if the gift is made by both you and your spouse (and you are both U.S. citizens)
- Amounts paid on behalf of any individual as tuition to an educational organization or to any person who provides medical care for an individual
Federal generation-skipping transfer tax
The federal generation-skipping transfer (GST) tax imposes tax on transfers of property you make, either during life or at death, to someone who is two or more generations below you, such as a grandchild. The GST tax is imposed in addition to, not instead of, federal gift and estate tax. You need to be aware of the GST tax if you make cumulative generation-skipping transfers in excess of the GST tax exemption, $5,250,000 in 2013. A flat tax equal to the highest estate tax bracket in effect in the year you make the transfer (40 percent in 2013) is imposed on every transfer you make after your exemption has been exhausted.
State transfer taxes
Currently, Connecticut imposes a gift tax, and a few states impose a generation-skipping transfer tax. Some states also impose a death tax, which could be in the form of estate tax, inheritance tax, or credit estate tax (also known as a sponge or pickup tax). Contact an attorney or your state’s department of revenue or taxation to find out more information
If you are planning to give away money or property at some point in your lifetime, having the right current financial strategies can help you achieve your goals for yourself and the next generation. Call us to learn more about the comprehensive services we can offer to you.
By definition, estate planning is a process designed to help you manage and preserve your assets while you are alive, and to conserve and control their distribution after your death according to your goals and objectives. But what estate planning means to you specifically depends on who you are. Your age, health, wealth, lifestyle, life stage, goals, and many other factors determine your particular estate planning needs. For example, you may have a small estate and may be concerned only that certain people receive particular things. A simple will is probably all you’ll need. Or, you may have a large estate, and minimizing any potential estate tax impact is your foremost goal. Here, you’ll need to use more sophisticated techniques in your estate plan, such as a trust.
To help you understand what estate planning means to you, the following sections address some estate planning needs that are common among some very broad groups of individuals. Think of these suggestions as simply a point in the right direction, and then seek professional advice to implement the right plan for you.
Since incapacity can strike anyone at anytime, all adults over 18 should consider having:
- A durable power of attorney: This document lets you name someone to manage your property for you in case you become incapacitated and cannot do so.
- An advanced medical directive: The three main types of advanced medical directives are (1) a living will, (2) a durable power of attorney for health care (also known as a health-care proxy), and (3) a Do Not Resuscitate order. Be aware that not all states allow each kind of medical directive, so make sure you execute one that will be effective for you.
Young and single
If you’re young and single, you may not need much estate planning. But if you have some material possessions, you should at least write a will. If you don’t, the wealth you leave behind if you die will likely go to your parents, and that might not be what you would want. A will lets you leave your possessions to anyone you choose (e.g., your significant other, siblings, other relatives, or favorite charity).
You’ve committed to a life partner but aren’t legally married. For you, a will is essential if you want your property to pass to your partner at your death. Without a will, state law directs that only your closest relatives will inherit your property, and your partner may get nothing. If you share certain property, such as a house or car, you may consider owning the property as joint tenants with rights of survivorship. That way, when one of you dies, the jointly held property will pass to the surviving partner automatically.
For many years, married couples had to do careful estate planning, such as the creation of a credit shelter trust, in order to take advantage of their combined federal estate tax exclusions. A new law passed in 2010 allows the executor of a deceased spouse’s estate to transfer any unused estate tax exclusion amount to the surviving spouse without such planning. This provision is effective for estates of decedents dying after December 31, 2010.
You may be inclined to rely on these portability rules for estate tax avoidance, using outright bequests to your spouse instead of traditional trust planning. However, portability should not be relied upon solely for utilization of the first to die’s estate tax exemption, and a credit shelter trust created at the first spouse’s death may still be advantageous for several reasons:
- Portability may be lost if the surviving spouse remarries and is later widowed again
- The trust can protect any appreciation of assets from estate tax at the second spouse’s death
- The trust can provide protection of assets from the reach of the surviving spouse’s creditors
- Portability does not apply to the generation-skipping transfer (GST) tax, so the trust may be needed to fully leverage the GST exemptions of both spouses
Married couples where one spouse is not a U.S. citizen have special planning concerns. The marital deduction is not allowed if the recipient spouse is a non-citizen spouse (but a $143,000 annual exclusion, for 2013, is allowed). If certain requirements are met, however, a transfer to a qualified domestic trust (QDOT) will qualify for the marital deduction.
Married with children
If you’re married and have children, you and your spouse should each have your own will. For you, wills are vital because you can name a guardian for your minor children in case both of you die simultaneously. If you fail to name a guardian in your will, a court may appoint someone you might not have chosen. Furthermore, without a will, some states dictate that at your death some of your property goes to your children and not to your spouse. If minor children inherit directly, the surviving parent will need court permission to manage the money for them.
You may also want to consult an attorney about establishing a trust to manage your children’s assets in the event that both you and your spouse die at the same time.
You may also need life insurance. Your surviving spouse may not be able to support the family on his or her own and may need to replace your earnings to maintain the family.
Comfortable and looking forward to retirement
If you’re in your 30s, you’re probably feeling comfortable. You’ve accumulated some wealth and you’re thinking about retirement. Here’s where estate planning overlaps with retirement planning. It’s just as important to plan to care for yourself during your retirement as it is to plan to provide for your beneficiaries after your death. You should keep in mind that even though Social Security may be around when you retire, those benefits alone may not provide enough income for your retirement years. Consider saving some of your accumulated wealth using other retirement and deferred vehicles, such as an individual retirement account (IRA).
Wealthy and worried
Depending on the size of your estate, you may need to be concerned about estate taxes.
For 2013, $5,250,000 is effectively exempt from the federal gift and estate tax. Estates over that amount may be subject to the tax at a top rate of 40 percent.
Similarly, there is another tax, called the generation-skipping transfer (GST) tax, that is imposed on transfers of wealth made to grandchildren (and lower generations). For 2013, the GST tax exemption is also $5,250,000, and the top tax rate is 40 percent.
Whether your estate will be subject to state death taxes depends on the size of your estate and the tax laws in effect in the state in which you are domiciled.
Elderly or ill
If you’re elderly or ill, you’ll want to write a will or update your existing one, consider a revocable living trust, and make sure you have a durable power of attorney and a health-care directive. Talk with your family about your wishes, and make sure they have copies of your important papers or know where to locate them.
If you’re ready to start your estate planning, set up an appointment with a financial partner at Sterling Advisor Group. Call us to learn more about the comprehensive services we can offer to you.
Whether you are working to build your wealth or you are ready to start moving it, it pays to think ahead. Knowing how to preserve and transfer your wealth to the next generation is essential, even when you have decades of life still to live.
Work with a Financial Investment Planner
Your goal is to reduce your taxes and potential losses and preserve as much as your wealth as is possible, in most cases. To do this, work closely with a financial planner and an investment professional. He or she can help you develop strategies with the right level of risks. Additionally, you can learn more about trusts that may help reduce your financial loss at the time of your death.
Create a Plan for Annual Gifting
You may benefit from annual gifting, perhaps one of the easiest ways to pass down funds to the next generation during your lifetime. You may be able to make an individual gift to each one of your heirs for as much as $14,000 each year (this value may change over time). Over the long term, this can amount to a significant amount of transfer without any type of risk.
Irrevocable Life Insurance Trusts
This specific type of trust has been a commonly used option for some time, but your tax situation needs to be carefully considered to ensure it fits your goals. In it, you’ll have a life insurance policy that pays into trust. That trust is a legal entity outside of your taxable estate. On an annual basis, you can gift premiums to the trust itself. You can then use this to pay for the policy. This type of trust is beneficial because it reduces some or all estate taxes while also providing you with control over your assets.
Other options exist that could help you better meet your goals. The key is to work with a financial investment team capable of helping you create a comprehensive solution.
Ready to Create Wealth for Your Family?
Having the right financial strategies can help you achieve your goals for yourself and the next generation. Our team at Sterling Financial is here to help you create the plans to make it happen. Call us to learn more about the comprehensive services we can offer to you.